References


Why we exist


Beck, C. T. (2004). Birth trauma: in the eye of the beholder. Nursing Research, 53(1), 28-35.


Diaz-Tello, F. (2016). Invisible wounds: obstetric violence in the United States. Reproductive Health Matters.


Matsakis, A. (1996). I can’t get over it: A handbook for trauma survivors. New Harbinger Publications Incorporated.


United Nations Population Fund. (2004) in: UNFPA (Ed.) State of the World Population 2004. UNFPA, New York.


What is Birth Trauma?


Alcorn, K. L., O’Donovan, A., Patrick, J. C., Creedy, D., & Devilly, G. J. (2010). A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events. Psychological Medicine, 40(11), 1849-1859.

Beck, C. T. (2004). Birth trauma: in the eye of the beholder. Nursing Research, 53(1), 28-35.


Beck, C. T., Gable, R. K., Sakala, C., & Declercq, E. R. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder in new mothers: Results from a two‐stage US National Survey. Birth, 38(3), 216-227.


Cook, C. A. L., Flick, L. H., Homan, S. M., Campbell, C., McSweeney, M., & Gallagher, M. E. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder in pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103(4), 710-717.


Creedy, D. K., Shochet, I. M., & Horsfall, J. (2000). Childbirth and the development of acute trauma symptoms: incidence and contributing factors. Birth, 27(2), 104-111.


Czarnocka, J., & Slade, P. (2000). Prevalence and predictors of post‐traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39(1), 35-51.


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) American Psychiatric Assoc Pub; 5 edition.


Garthus-Niegel, S., von Soest, T., Vollrath, M. E., & Eberhard-Gran, M. (2013). The impact of subjective birth experiences on post-traumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal study. Archives of women’s mental health, 16(1), 1-10.


Harris, R., & Ayers, S. (2012). What makes labour and birth traumatic? A survey of intrapartum ‘hotspots’. Psychology & Health, 27(10), 1166-1177.


Menage, J. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder in women who have undergone obstetric and/or gynaecological procedures: a consecutive series of 30 cases of PTSD. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 11(4), 221-228.


Reed, R., Sharman, R., & Inglis, C. (2017). Women’s descriptions of childbirth trauma relating to care provider actions and interactions. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 17(1), 21.


Ryding, E. L., Wijma, K., & Wijma, B. (1998). Experiences of emergency cesarean section: A phenomenological study of 53 women. Birth, 25(4), 246-251.

Scaer, R. (2001). The body bears the burden. Trauma.


Schwab, W., Marth, C., & Bergant, A. M. (2012). Post-traumatic stress disorder post partum. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, 72(01), 56-63.


Shaban, Z., Dolatian, M., Shams, J., Alavi-Majd, H., Mahmoodi, Z., & Sajjadi, H. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth: prevalence and contributing factors. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 15(3), 177-182.


Soet, J. E., Brack, G. A., & DiIorio, C. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of women’s experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth, 30(1), 36-46.


Tavares, D., Quevedo, L., Jansen, K., Souza, L., Pinheiro, R., & Silva, R. (2012). Prevalence of suicide risk and comorbidities in postpartum women in Pelotas. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 34(3), 270-276.


Wijma, K., Söderquist, J., & Wijma, B. (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth: a cross sectional study. Journal of anxiety disorders, 11(6), 587-597.


The Effects of Trauma


Bremner, J. D. (2006). Traumatic stress: effects on the brain. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 8(4), 445.


Chemtob, C. M., Nomura, Y., Rajendran, K., Yehuda, R., Schwartz, D., & Abramovitz, R. (2010). Impact of maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following exposure to the September 11 attacks on preschool children’s behavior. Child development, 81(4), 1129-1141.


Chemtob, C. M., Gudiño, O. G., & Laraque, D. (2013). Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in pediatric primary care: association with child maltreatment and frequency of child exposure to traumatic events. JAMA pediatrics, 167(11), 1011-1018.


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) American Psychiatric Assoc Pub; 5 edition.


Frančišković, T., Stevanović, A., Jelušić, I., Roganović, B., Klarić, M., & Grković, J. (2007). Secondary traumatization of wives of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Croatian medical journal, 48(2.), 0-184.


Gottvall, K., & Waldenström, U. (2002). Does a traumatic birth experience have an impact on future reproduction?. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 109(3), 254-260.


Jordan, B. K., Marmar, C. R., Fairbank, J. A., Schlenger, W. E., Kulka, R. A., Hough, R. L., & Weiss, D. S. (1992). Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 60(6), 916.


Karl, A., Schaefer, M., Malta, L. S., Dörfel, D., Rohleder, N., & Werner, A. (2006). A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(7), 1004-1031.


Maher, M. J., Rego, S. A., & Asnis, G. M. (2006). Sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: epidemiology, impact and approaches to management. CNS drugs, 20(7), 567-591.


Morina, N., Wicherts, J. M., Lobbrecht, J., & Priebe, S. (2014). Remission from post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of long term outcome studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(3), 249-255.


Negrusa, B., & Negrusa, S. (2014). Home front: Post-deployment mental health and divorces. Demography, 51(3), 895-916.


Sareen, J., Cox, B. J., Stein, M. B., Afifi, T. O., Fleet, C., & Asmundson, G. J. (2007). Physical and mental comorbidity, disability, and suicidal behavior associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in a large community sample. Psychosomatic medicine, 69(3), 242-248.


Seng J, Low L, Sperlich M, Ronis D, Liberzon I. (2011) Post-traumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birthweight and gestational age: a prospective cohort study. BJOG 2011;118:1329–1339.


Hope for Healing


Carr, C., d’Ardenne, P., Sloboda, A., Scott, C., Wang, D., & Priebe, S. (2012). Group music therapy for patients with persistent post‐traumatic stress disorder–an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85(2), 179-202.


Eby, G. A., & Eby, K. L. (2006). Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Medical hypotheses, 67(2), 362-370.


Faravelli, C., Giugni, A., Salvatori, S., & Ricca, V. (2004). Psychopathology after rape. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(8), 1483-1485.


Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., … & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American journal of preventive medicine, 14(4), 245-258.


Hallahan, B., Hibbeln, J. R., Davis, J. M., & Garland, M. R. (2007). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(2), 118-122.


Halvorsen, L., Nerum, H., Øian, P., & Sørlie, T. (2013). Giving birth with rape in one’s past: a qualitative study. Birth, 40(3), 182-191.


Kar, N. (2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7(1), 167-181.


Oh, W., Muzik, M., McGinnis, E. W., Hamilton, L., Menke, R. A., & Rosenblum, K. L. (2016). Comorbid trajectories of postpartum depression and PTSD among mothers with childhood trauma history: Course, predictors, processes and child adjustment. Journal of affective disorders, 200, 133-141.


Shapiro, F. (2014). The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71-77.


Tanskanen, A., Hibbeln, J. R., Hintikka, J., Haatainen, K., Honkalampi, K., & Viinamäki, H. (2001). Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population. Archives of general psychiatry, 58(5), 512-513.


What is Obstetric Violence?


Bohren, M. A., Vogel, J. P., Hunter, E. C., Lutsiv, O., Makh, S. K., Souza, J. P., ... & Javadi, D. (2015). The mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities globally: a mixed-methods systematic review.


Bowser, D., & Hill, K. (2010). Exploring evidence for disrespect and abuse in facility-based childbirth. Boston: USAID-TRAction Project, Harvard School of Public Health.


Pérez D’Gregorio, R. (2015). Obstetric violence: A new legal term introduced in Venezuela. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 111, 3.


Reed, R., Sharman, R., & Inglis, C. (2017). Women’s descriptions of childbirth trauma relating to care provider actions and interactions. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 17(1), 21. 


World Health Organization. (2015). The prevention and elimination of disrespect and abuse during facility-based childbirth: WHO statement.


At-risk Clientele


Avery, Granger, M.D., (2017). The role of the CMA in physician health and wellness. Canadian Medical Association.


Ayers, S., Bond, R., Bertullies, S., & Wijma, K. (2016). The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework. Psychological Medicine, 46(6), 1121-1134.


Decety, J., Smith, K. E., Norman, G. J., & Halpern, J. (2014). A social neuroscience perspective on clinical empathy. World Psychiatry, 13(3), 233-237.


Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., … & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American journal of preventive medicine, 14(4), 245-258.


Halpern, J. (2003). What is clinical empathy?. Journal of general internal medicine, 18(8), 670-674.


Halvorsen, L., Nerum, H., Øian, P., & Sørlie, T. (2013). Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study. Birth40(3), 182-191.


Harris, R., & Ayers, S. (2012). What makes labour and birth traumatic? A survey of intrapartum ‘hotspots’. Psychology & Health, 27(10), 1166-1177.


Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., & Quill, T. E. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. Jama, 302(12), 1284-1293.


Mercer, S. W., Jani, B. D., Maxwell, M., Wong, S. Y., & Watt, G. C. (2012). Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland. BMC family practice, 13(1), 6.


Mollart, L., Skinner, V. M., Newing, C., & Foureur, M. (2013). Factors that may influence midwives work-related stress and burnout. Women and Birth, 26(1), 26-32. 


Neumann, M., Edelhäuser, F., Tauschel, D., Fischer, M. R., Wirtz, M., Woopen, C., … & Scheffer, C. (2011). Empathy decline and its reasons: a systematic review of studies with medical students and residents. Academic medicine, 86(8), 996-1009.


Nolte, A. G., Downing, C., Temane, A., & Hastings‐Tolsma, M. (2017). Compassion fatigue in nurses: A metasynthesis. Journal of Clinical Nursing.

Peckham, C. (2016). Medscape lifestyle report 2016: bias and burnout. New York, NY: Medscape.


Post, S. G., Ng, L. E., Fischel, J. E., Bennett, M., Bily, L., Chandran, L., … & Rodriguez, J. V. (2014). Routine, empathic and compassionate patient care: definitions, development, obstacles, education and beneficiaries. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 20(6), 872-880.


Rakel, D. P., Hoeft, T. J., Barrett, B. P., Chewning, B. A., Craig, B. M., & Niu, M. (2009). Practitioner empathy and the duration of the common cold. Family medicine, 41(7), 494.


Shanafelt, T. D., West, C., Zhao, X., Novotny, P., Kolars, J., Habermann, T., & Sloan, J. (2005). Relationship between increased personal well‐being and enhanced empathy among internal medicine residents. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(7), 559-564.


Shanafelt, T. D., & Noseworthy, J. H. (2017, January). Executive leadership and physician well-being: nine organizational strategies to promote engagement and reduce burnout. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 92, No. 1, pp. 129-146). Elsevier.


Sheen, K., Spiby, H., & Slade, P. (2015). Exposure to traumatic perinatal experiences and posttraumatic stress symptoms in midwives: prevalence and association with burnout. International journal of nursing studies, 52(2), 578-587.


Trauma-Informed


Holten, L., & de Miranda, E. (2016). Women׳s motivations for having unassisted childbirth or high-risk homebirth: An exploration of the literature on ‘birthing outside the system’. Midwifery.


United Nations Population Fund. (2004) in: UNFPA (Ed.) State of the World Population 2004. UNFPA, New York.


Vedam, S., Stoll, K., Rubashkin, N., Martin, K., Miller-Vedam, Z., Hayes-Klein, H., & Jolicoeur, G. (2017). The Mothers on Respect (MOR) index: measuring quality, safety, and human rights in childbirth. SSM-Population Health, 3, 201-210.

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